Scientific Name: Ixobrychus flavicollis
Malay Name: Gelam Hitam
Chinese Name: 黑鳽
Found from the Indian subcontinent to southern China, Southeast Asia and northern Australia with some northern population wintering in Southeast Asia
Polytypic. Subspecies are: flavicollis, australis, woodfordi
Local Subspecies: flavicollis
Size: 54-61 cm
Identification: Male has black upperparts, whitish throat, whitish breast with dense dark streaks, and yellow neck-patch. Female resembles male but has darker brown upperparts and more rufescent breast-streaks. Juvenile resemble female but feathers of the crown and upperside have narrow rufous fringes, giving a scaly appearance.
Habitat: Marshes, reedbeds in ponds, and mangroves.
Behavior/Ecology: Often secretive, hiding in reeds for long periods of time.
Local Status: Uncommon migrant
Conservation Status: Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)
Location: Singapore Botanic Gardens, Satay by the Bay, Chinese Gardens, Bidadari, Pasir Ris Park, Pulau Ubin, Tuas South and Sungei Buloh.
Craig Robson (2011) A Field Guide to the Birds of South-East Asia
Allen Jeyarajasingam & Alan Pearson (2012) A Field Guide to the Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore