Scientific Name: Ixobrychus flavicollis
Malay Name: Gelam Hitam
Chinese Name: 黑鳽
Found from the Indian subcontinent to southern China, Southeast Asia and northern Australia with some northern population wintering in Southeast Asia
Polytypic. Subspecies are: flavicollis, australis, woodfordi.
Local Subspecies: flavicollis
Size: 54-61 cm
Male has black upperparts, whitish throat, whitish breast with dense dark streaks, and yellow neck-patch. Female resembles male but has darker brown upperparts and more rufescent breast-streaks. Juvenile resemble female but feathers of the crown and upperside have narrow rufous fringes, giving a scaly appearance.
Habitat: Marshes, reedbeds in ponds, and mangroves.
Behaviour/Ecology: Often secretive, hiding in reeds for long periods of time.
Local Status: Uncommon migrant
Conservation Status: Least Concern (BirdLife International 2016)
Location: Singapore Botanic Gardens, Satay by the Bay, Chinese Gardens, Bidadari, Pasir Ris Park, Pulau Ubin, Tuas South and Sungei Buloh.
- Bird List Revision for January 2020 (Revisions)
Migrant bar chart (see more bar charts):
BirdLife International. (2016). Ixobrychus flavicollis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22697334A93608997.en. Accessed on 1 January 2023
Jeyarajasingam, A., & Pearson, A. (2012). A Field Guide to the Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Oxford University Press.
Robson, C. (2014). Field guide to the birds of South-East Asia (Second Edition). Bloomsbury Publishing, London.