Scientific Name: Lonchura punctulata
Malay Name: Ciak-Padi Pinang
Chinese Name: 斑文鸟
Found from the Himalayan foothills to the Indian subcontinent, China and Southeast Asia
Polytypic. Subspecies are: punctulata, subundulata, yunnanensis, topela, cabanisi, fretensis, nisoria, sumbae, blasii, baweana, particeps
Local Subspecies: fretensis (resident) & topela (introduced)
Size: 12-12.5 cm
Identification: The introduced topela shows distinctive plumage pattern with brown upperparts contrasting with brownish scales on breast and flanks, chestnut-tinged head-sides and whitish centre of belly and vent. Local race fretensis has paler upperparts and bolder/blacker scaling below. Juvenile is duller and scales are either very faint or not visible.
Habitat: Urban areas as well as cultivated lands, grasslands, scrub, secondary growth.
Behaviour/Ecology: Highly gregarious and forages in small flocks, sometimes with other Munia species.
Local Status: Common resident and introduced resident
Conservation Status: Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)
Location: Kranji Marsh, Lorong Halus, Punggol Barat, Tampines Eco Green, Tuas, Satay by the Bay, Pulau Ubin and Pulau Tekong.
Craig Robson (2011) A Field Guide to the Birds of South-East Asia
David Wells (2007) The Birds of Thai-Malay Peninsula, Volume 2