Scientific Name: Lonchura punctulata
Malay Name: Ciak-Padi Pinang
Chinese Name: 斑文鸟
Found from the Himalayan foothills to the Indian subcontinent, China and Southeast Asia
Polytypic. Subspecies are: punctulata, subundulata, yunnanensis, topela, cabanisi, fretensis, nisoria, sumbae, blasii, baweana, particeps.
Local Subspecies: fretensis (resident), topela (introduced)
Size: 12-12.5 cm
The introduced topela shows distinctive plumage pattern with brown upperparts contrasting with brownish scales on breast and flanks, chestnut-tinged head-sides and whitish centre of belly and vent. Local race fretensis has paler upperparts and bolder/blacker scaling below. Juvenile is duller and scales are either very faint or not visible.
Habitat: Urban areas as well as cultivated lands, grasslands, scrub, secondary growth.
Behaviour/Ecology: Highly gregarious and forages in small flocks, sometimes with other Munia species.
Local Status: Common resident and introduced resident.
Conservation Status: Least Concern (BirdLife International 2016)
Location: Kranji Marsh, Lorong Halus, Punggol Barat, Tampines Eco Green, Tuas, Satay by the Bay, Pulau Ubin and Pulau Tekong.
BirdLife International. (2016). Lonchura punctulata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22719821A94646304.en. Accessed on 19 December 2021
Robson, C. (2014). Field guide to the birds of South-East Asia (Second Edition). Bloomsbury Publishing, London.
Wells, D. R. (1999). The Birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula (Vol. 1). Academic Press, London.