Scientific Name: Lonchura punctulata
Malay Name: Ciak-Padi Pinang
Chinese Name: 斑文鸟
Found from the Himalayan foothills to the Indian subcontinent, China and Southeast Asia
Polytypic. Subspecies are: punctulata, subundulata, yunnanensis, topela, cabanisi, fretensis, nisoria, sumbae, blasii, baweana, particeps.
Local Subspecies: fretensis (resident), topela (introduced)
Size: 12-12.5 cm
The introduced topela shows distinctive plumage pattern with brown upperparts contrasting with brownish scales on breast and flanks, chestnut-tinged head-sides and whitish centre of belly and vent. Local race fretensis has paler upperparts and bolder/blacker scaling below. Juvenile is duller and scales are either very faint or not visible.
Habitat: Urban areas as well as cultivated lands, grasslands, scrub, secondary growth.
Behaviour/Ecology: Highly gregarious and forages in small flocks, sometimes with other Munia species.
Local Status: Common resident and introduced resident.
Conservation Status: Least Concern (BirdLife International 2016)
Location: Kranji Marsh, Lorong Halus, Punggol Barat, Tampines Eco Green, Tuas, Satay by the Bay, Pulau Ubin and Pulau Tekong.
- Local extinctions of Singapore birds (Science)
BirdLife International. (2016). Lonchura punctulata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22719821A94646304.en. Accessed on 19 December 2021
Robson, C. (2014). Field guide to the birds of South-East Asia (Second Edition). Bloomsbury Publishing, London.
Wells, D. R. (1999). The Birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula (Vol. 1). Academic Press, London.