This species is defined as a Review Species . Please submit your records of this species via our record submission page .

Scientific Name: Calidris pugnax

Malay Name: Kedidi Ropol

Chinese Name: 流苏鹬

Range: Found from northern Europe to Siberia, wintering in south western Europe, Africa, Middle East, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, southern China, Japan, Southeast Asia and Australia

Taxonomy: Monotypic.

Size: M:29-32 cm, F:22-26 cm

Identification: Adult in non-breeding plumage (the form we get to see in the region) can be separated from similar size waders (Common Redshank, Common Greenshank and Great Knot) by a combination of upright stance, longish neck, relatively small head, shortish and straight bill which is slightly down-curved at tip and longish, usually orange to yellowish-green legs. Male is significantly bigger than female. Their feathers seem to “ruffle” more easily in the wind than other waders.

Habitat: Marshes, grassy areas, coastal pools and mudflats.

Behaviour/Ecology: Feeds mostly by surface pecking but often wades in fairly deep water.

Local Status: Vagrant

Conservation Status: Least Concern (BirdLife International 2016)

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Past records in our database:

Showing only accepted records. Note that records currently under review are also not displayed, and the list may not be a full list of records of this species in Singapore. For more details, check the database here.

Migrant bar chart (see more bar charts):

Ruff Calidris pugnax
Average number of individuals by week based on Singapore Bird Database data, Jul 2013 to Jun 2023 (all records)
Peak week Dec 03-Dec 09
Early date 25 Sep 1987
Late date 22 Mar 1986
Only one record in the last 10 years: in Dec 2016 at Sungei Buloh.


BirdLife International. (2016). Calidris pugnax. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016. Accessed on 1 January 2023

Jeyarajasingam, A., & Pearson, A. (2012). A Field Guide to the Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Oxford University Press.

Lim, K. S. (2009). The Avifauna of Singapore. Nature Society (Singapore).

Robson, C. (2014). Field guide to the birds of South-East Asia (Second Edition). Bloomsbury Publishing, London.

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