Scientific Name: Lonchura atricapilla
Malay Name: Ciak-Padi Rawa Biasa
Chinese Name: 栗腹文鸟
Alternative Name(s): Black-headed Munia
Range: Found from India, Nepal, Bangladesh, South China, Taiwan to Southeast Asia
Taxonomy: Polytypic. Subspecies are: rubronigra, atricapilla, deignani, sinensis, batakana, formosana, jagori.
Local Subspecies: sinensis
Size: 11-11.5 cm
Identification: Adult has black hood that contrasts strongly with deep chestnut body, bluish-grey bill and darker belly-center/vent. Difficult to distinguish juvenile from Scaly-breasted Munia and White-headed Munia.
Behaviour/Ecology: Forages in large mixed flocks with Scaly-breated Munia and White-headed Munia.
Local Status: Uncommon resident and uncommon introduced resident
Conservation Status: Least Concern (BirdLife International 2016)
Location: Kranji Marsh, Lorong Halus, Punggol Barat, Tampines Eco Green, Tuas, Satay by the Bay, Pulau Ubin and Pulau Tekong.
BirdLife International. (2016). Lonchura atricapilla. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22729138A95007301.en. Accessed on 1 January 2023
Robson, C. (2014). Field guide to the birds of South-East Asia (Second Edition). Bloomsbury Publishing, London.
Wells, D. R. (1999). The Birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula (Vol. 1). Academic Press, London.
Bird Society of Singapore. (n.d.). Chestnut Munia. Retrieved on December 2, 2023 from https://singaporebirds.com/species/chestnut-munia.