Scientific Name: Hydroprogne caspia
Malay Name: Camar Raya
Chinese Name: 红嘴巨燕鸥
Range: Found from northern Africa to Europe, temperate Asia, Australasia and North America with northern populations wintering along the coasts of Africa, southern Europe, Middle East, Indian subcontinent, southern China, Southeast Asia, West Indies and northern South America.
Size: 48-55 cm
Identification: The largest of the tern species. Non-breeding adult has diagnostic thick red bill, mostly black crown, nape and mask with whiter, dark-mottled forecrown and black subterminal marking on bill-tip. Breeding adult has all black forehead to nape and mask. First winter bird resembles non-breeding adult but has darker secondaries, primary upperwing-coverts and tail.
Habitat: Coastal pools, mudflats and sandflats.
Behaviour/Ecology: Forages by hovering over shallow waters and plunge-dives when a fish is spotted.
Local Status: Vagrant
Conservation Status: Least Concern (BirdLife International 2019)
Migrant bar chart (see more bar charts):
Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia Average number of individuals by week based on Singapore Bird Database data, Jul 2013 to Jun 2023 (all records)
BirdLife International. (2019). Hydroprogne caspia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T22694524A155509311.en. Accessed on 1 January 2023
Robson, C. (2014). Field guide to the birds of South-East Asia (Second Edition). Bloomsbury Publishing, London.
Bird Society of Singapore. (n.d.). Caspian Tern. Retrieved on November 27, 2023 from https://singaporebirds.com/species/caspian-tern.